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GM Freeze are particularly concerned about the finding that Bt protein is clearly not digested as previously assumed.
Warnings have been given repeatedly over some years that other assumptions about the Cry1Ab-toxin are unwarranted, for example:
- “the evidence for the survival of the Bt toxins in the digestive tract and internal organs is clear-cut” (Pusztai, 2007)
- antibodies (immune responses) to Cry1Ab were found circulating in the blood of Philippine farm workers exposed to GM maize; this coincided with an unexplained outbreak of respiratory and intestinal disease (Traavik, 2004)
- the Cry1Ab protein has a greater than 90% homology with the Cry1Ac toxin which is known to be a potent immunogen and can act as a powerful adjuvant to increase immune responses to other toxins (Vázquez-Padron, 1999, 2000)
- the Bacillus thuringiensis microbes from which Bt-toxins are derived have known homologies with the pathogenic microbe, Bacillus cereus (Vázquez-Padron, 1999)
- evidence for Bt-toxin 'safety' comes from testing bacterial Bt proteins, not from the Bt-variant protein designed by man and made by plant cells inserted with artificial DNA.
GM Freeze is calling for an immediate halt to Bt cultivation and importation until the safety of Bt crops as food and feed has been properly established.
Please write to your MP and MEP to:
- alert them to this new peer-reviewed research showing whole, toxic, Bt proteins from GM crops have been found to have passed from food into humans and into human foetuses.
- point out to them that the research has been peer-reviewed and published, and that GM industry statements rejecting the new research are therefore invalid.
- point out to them that, in light of this new research, EFSA and FSA advice on Bt safety is inaccurate, and previous safety analyses of Bt crops must now be questioned
- press for an immediate halt to the use of Bt crops in both food and feed until the health-effects of the toxin have been properly established.
- www.gmfreeze.org, Action Alert 20.05.11
- Vázquez-Padron et al., 1999, Intragastric and intraperitoneal administration of Cry1Ac protoxin from Bacillus thuringiensis induces systemic and mucosal antibody responses in mice, Life Sciences 64(21
- Vázquez et al., 1999, Bacillus thruingiensis Cry1Ac Protoxin is a Potent Systemic and Mucosal Adjuvant, Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, 49
- Vázquez-Padron et al., 2000, Characterization of the mucosal and systemic immune response induced by Cry1Ac protein from Bacillus thuringiensis HD 73 in mice, Brazilian Journal of Medical Biology Research, 33(2)
- Terje Traavid, The Cartagena protocol, the Precautionary principle, “sound science” and “early warnings”, Third World Network, www.twnside.org.sg/title2/service108.htm
- Arpad Puaztai, Affadavit from Dr. Arpad Pusztai for the Indian supreme court, 20.08.07, www.gmfreecymru.org/pivotal-papers/btcropsaffadavit.htm